Arduino is a company in Italy, that designs and sell circuit boards that make microcontroller easy to use and they call these circuit boards ARDUINO.
Microcontrollers are integrated circuits that are basically tiny computers. They can run small simple software programs on them. Their power requirements are very low , so low that they can be easily operated on a battery for days but they can process data much faster than any human brain can think .
The company Arduino open-sources all of their hardware designs. Arduino is often confused with being a microcontroller. But basically it is a circuit board that has microcontroller chips on them along with a lot of other stuff on it.
Getting Familiar with the board:
- Microcontroller: Arduino Uno uses a series of microcontroller called ATMegaAVR they are made by a company called ATMEL.
- Crystal Resonator: Connected to the microcontroller is a crystal resonator. This controls how fast the microcontroller is running.
- Another Microcontroller: In order to upload the software we created, there is actually another microcontroller. This chip is what lets you connect your USB cable to the Arduino board and communicate via USB. It lets you upload your program onto the main microcontroller and allows you to send messages back and forth between the computer and Arduino.
- Power USB: One great thing about Arduino is that you can power them purely from your USB cable.
- Power (Barrel Jack): If you do not want your project to be always connected to your computer, you can use an external 9V DC power supply with a battery jack over there.
- Voltage Regulator: Arduino Uno has a built in voltage regulator that will reduce the voltage to 5V.
- Arduino Reset: If you ever want to rebuilt your Arduino program you got a reset button on your Arduino board.
- ICSP Pin: Mostly ICSP it is a AVRtiny programming header for the Arduino consisting of MOSI, MISO, SCK, RESET, VCC, GND. It is often referred to as an SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface) which could be considered an “expansion” of the output, but really, you are slaving the output device to the master of the SPI bus.
- Power LED indicator: This LED should light up when you plug your Arduino into a power source to indicate that your board is powered up correctly. If this light does not turn on, then there is something wrong with the connection.
- TX and RX LEDs: On your board, you will find two labels: TX (transmit) and RX (receive). The TX led flashes with different speed while sending the serial data. The speed of flashing depends on the baud rate used by the board. RX flashes during the receiving process.
- Power Pins: Can connect wire to power other circuits with 5V or 3.3V power supply. Just make sure whatever we power must not draw more than a few milliampere. Few LEDs would work but a large motor would not.
- TX & RX: These are for sending and receiving data. You can use these port to send and receive data from GPS module, Bluetooth module etc.
- Digitals Pins: pins from 2-13 are digital pins. These are for digital inputs and outputs. Some of the pins have a tilder(~) in front of them ad this means u can use them to output pulse with modulated square wave.
- Analog Pins: We have 6 analog pins namely A0, A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 for input. These are used to measure continuous voltages anywhere from 0V to5V.
I guess this article must have made it easier for you in getting familiar with the board. Arduino has a lot in store for technology enthusiast like us. The IoT (Internet of Things) platform uses Arduino in various ways and comes out with wonderful and exciting creations.
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